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Posts Tagged ‘staining and dying’

3 Spectacular Curly Maple Wood Finishes That’ll Blow ‘Em Away

Friday, December 5th, 2014

Curly maple, tiger maple, fiddleback maple and quilted maple (various names for different types of figure found in maple lumber) have to be some of the more interesting woods to finish because you can take a board from mild to wild with the simplest of techniques. Here are just a few of them. You can see a full demonstration in the video above, or get the highlights below.

1. Use Dewaxed Shellac for Your Best “Clear” Finish On Curly Maple

Finish 3Beforecurly maple board sanded to 220 grit, just before being finished with dewaxed shellac Finish 3After - with 3 coats of dewaxed shellac
Of all the basic clear topcoats you can choose from, dewaxed shellac provides a surprising chatoyance that you just don’t get with other finishes. That’s not to say your favorite solvent based varnish, polyurethane or lacquer does a poor job – they’re just fine. But the shellac has a touch of magic that’s virtually water white in color and yet brings out curly figure you couldn’t see before while also giving the figure a three-dimensional appearance.

Zinseer SealCoat is the dewaxed shellac I used in this tutorial.

Zinseer SealCoat is the dewaxed shellac I used in this tutorial.

So why dewaxed shellac? First, it’s crystal clear in color – for you purists who disapprove of adding color to wood, this is the product for you. Second, since it’s dewaxed, it’s also a universal sealer. Therefore you have the option of applying a more durable topcoat after the shellac dries. For example, if you need the protection that a polyurethane provides, you can apply that on top of dewaxed shellac and get the best of both worlds – the figure pop and the protection.

Shellac is also a very safe finish that’s easy to apply by hand or by spraying. Plus, any rags you use do not pose the same fire danger that oil-soaked rags do.

How to Apply Dewaxed Shellac:

  1. Prep your material by sanding to 220 grit, clean off the dust
  2. Using a brush or a lint-free rag, apply the shellac. It dries fast, so work quickly and try not to overlap any areas that are already tacky
  3. After the coat dries (10 to 15 minutes is often adequate), sand it with fine sandpaper or a synthetic finishing pad
  4. Apply another one or two coats to your satisfaction
  5. Once the last coat is dry and sanded, you can apply a paste wax and buff it to a glassy-smooth surface

2. Try Oil for Popping the Grain and Giving Curly Maple an Aged Amber Color

Beforecurly maple board sanded to 220 grit, just before application of tung oil After - with 1 coat of tung oil varnish
Tung Oil Varnish blend is what I used in this tutorial.

Tung Oil Varnish blend is what I used in this tutorial.

While oil finishes do a wonderful job at highlighting the figure in curly maple, they also add a gentle amber color. An oil such as tung oil or boiled linseed oil will also reveal and add punch to figure that may have been difficult to see in the raw board. You can apply numerous coats of these oils to build up a sheen, but that’s a process that takes a long time because it takes 12 hours or more for each coat to dry.

My technique, when using oils, is to apply just one coat, let it dry, hit it with a coat or two of dewaxed shellac, then either wax and buff it, or spray two or three coats of lacquer then wax/buff (depends on the application). The point here is you get the effect of an oil with the first coat; to build a protective coating with a satin, semi-gloss or gloss sheen, it’s quicker to seal it with dewaxed shellac and move on to lacquer rather than build up multiple coats of a drying oil. Of course . . . opinions vary.

How to Apply Tung Oil or Boiled Linseed Oil:

  1. Prep your material by sanding to 220 grit, clean off the dust
  2. Read the directions on your can of oil. You most likely need to thin the oil with mineral spirits, the directions will tell you the ratio.
  3. Work in a well-ventilated area. Use a clean lint-free cotton rag to wipe the oil on your work piece, just apply a thin coating
  4. Allow it to sit for 10 to 15 minutes, then wipe it off with a clean rag.
  5. Let your work dry, then make a choice: 1). add another coat, 2). wax/buff, or 3). apply a sealer, then topcoat and wax/buff

3. Use Dye for Bold and Stunning Figure Pop

Finish 4Beforecurly maple board sanded to 220 grit, just before application of brown dye Finish 4After – 3 coats of Solar-Lux Maple Brown dye (each coat sanded off before the next coat), 1 coat of tung oil
Behlen Solar-Lux Dye doesn't raise the grain like water based dye does, and it comes in a wide variety of colors.

Behlen Solar-Lux Dye doesn’t raise the grain like water based dye does, and it comes in a wide variety of colors.

You won’t find a better way to make the figure pop from across a ballroom than you will with aniline dye. Dye is different from your usual oil stains, and it’s just the thing for figured woods like curly maple. While you can just hit curly maple with a single coat of dye and move on to your clear topcoat, I like to do three diluted coats of dye and sand it off between each coat. It might seem counterintuitive to apply it and then sand it off, but if you watch the video above you’ll see why.

The color I used in the sample above (and in the video) is Maple Brown by Behlen Solar-Lux.

How to Apply Alcohol Based Dye on Curly Maple

  1. Prep your material by sanding to 220 grit, clean off the dust
  2. Dilute the dye by 25% to 50% with denatured alcohol
  3. Use a cotton rag or a sponge to apply the dye. It dries fast, so work quickly
  4. Let the coat of dye sit for 5 to 10 minutes, then sand the work piece until the color comes off the surface of the wood. You’ll see that the curls remain colored. That’s perfect
  5. Apply two more coats of dye, sanding it off between each. Do not sand off the last coat.
  6. Soon after applying the last coat, dampen a rag with denatured alcohol and wipe the work piece to even out the color and blend in any lap marks you created

Optional: after the last coat of dye has dried, apply a light coat of tung oil or boiled linseed oil. This will add another small boost to the figure.

Dyes give you a whole rainbow of colors to work with, plus you can make them as diluted or as vivid as you like. Here are some other examples:

 

 

 

6 Rustic, Reclaimed, Weathered, Distressed Alder Wood Finishes You Can Do

Tuesday, August 19th, 2014
You can achieve numerous colors and rustic, charred, weathered, or distressed looks on your alder woodworking project. Here are 6 easy and dramatic methods.

You can achieve numerous colors and rustic, charred, weathered, or distressed looks on your alder woodworking projects. Here are 6 easy and dramatic methods.

If there’s one thing to understand about creating a rustic or distressed finish in alder woodworking projects, it’s this: there is no wrong answer. But still, maybe you want a handful of ideas to get your creative gears greased up. Indeed, of all wood finishes, rustic/aged techniques are probably the most fun to do – perhaps because they’re more art than skill. You’ll have a good time with these techniques, and you’ll have even more fun as you modify them to suit your taste. If you have questions or comments, just share down at the bottom.

Working from left to right in the picture above, I’ll walk you through how to do each one. Click on any picture to zoom in for a closer look.

1. Clear Lacquer, Epoxy-Filled Knots & Cracks

knotty alder with clear finish, black epoxy in knots cracks

The most straightforward way to finish knotty alder is to emphasize the knots. Using two-part epoxy and black pigment, you can fill in the cracks of the knots with high-contrast black.

See the how-to process for filling cracks with black epoxy here.

To protect alder with a clear finish, try this out:

  1. Sand your work to 180 or 220 grit.
  2. Apply dewaxed shellac for a sealer. Sand it smooth with a fine grit sand paper or finishing pad. Apply 2 or 3 coats to your satisfaction. The purpose of the shellac is to give you a good, smooth surface to apply the lacquer, ultimately making it much easier to get a glass-smooth sheen.
  3. Spray lacquer, sanding between coats. Apply 2 or 3 coats.
  4. After the final coat has dried, give it a light sanding with a finish pad or abrasive sponge. Polish the lacquer with a buffers polish or wax.

2. Dark Even Color, Epoxy-Filled Knots & Cracks

knotty-alder-even-stain-dye

Alder is a wood that doesn’t accept stains very well, resulting in blotchy color. Even though we’re going for a rustic or distressed appearance, a blotchy stain can still look downright ugly. Perhaps try this finishing method to get nice, even color. For greater effect, fill the cracks with black epoxy before applying this finish.

  1. Apply a light colored dye. In this sample, that’s Golden Fruitwood, and it makes a light reddish to pink color.
  2. Apply a sealer. Zinsser SealCoat is a fine choice because it’s universal. One coat is all you need, let it dry, then if it feels like it needs it, do a quick and light scuff sand to remove dust nibs in the sealer.
  3. Apply a gel stain to glaze the color. For this sample we used Old Masters Dark Walnut Gel Stain, which is a very dark brown. Wipe it on to the surface, then wipe it off. Be careful to be gentle enough that the gel leaves a good, even coat of color on the board.

***
The next four samples employ a weathering technique that creates a textured wood surface. Using an angle grinder or a drill with a wire wheel, the process is quick and effective. The looks you can get by adding a little bit of gel stain to the textured wood are fantastically diverse. Tips for how to texture alder with an angle grinder are at the bottom.
***

3. Dark Weathered Alder

To get a nice dark and weathered appearance in alder, try this:

  1. Using a wire wheel in an angle grinder, texture the alder (details at bottom).
  2. Lightly sand with a fine grit (150 or 220 grit perhaps) sanding sponge. Don’t try to level the ridges and produced during the texture process, just knock down fuzzy grain.
  3. Apply a sealer. Spraying is easiest due to the texturing – brushing or wiping is more laborious. Lacquer sanding sealer comes in aerosol cans if you do not have HVLP spray equipment.
  4. After the sealer dries, use a dark brown gel stain — Old Masters Dark Walnut Gel Stain is shown here. Wipe it on and wipe it off. The gel will collect in the valleys you created during the texturing process.
  5. Allow the stain to dry, then apply 2 or 3 coats of spray lacquer to seal and protect.

4. Country Pickled Alder

Perhaps you want a pleasant light country look? Same process, just a different gel stain color.

  1. Using a wire wheel in an angle grinder, texture the alder (details at bottom).
  2. Lightly sand with a fine grit (150 or 220 grit perhaps) sanding sponge. Don’t try to level the ridges and produced during the texture process, just knock down fuzzy grain.
  3. Apply a sealer. Spraying is easiest due to the texturing – brushing or wiping is more laborious. Lacquer sanding sealer comes in aerosol cans if you do not have HVLP spray equipment.
  4. After the sealer dries, use a white gel stain — Old Masters Pickling White Gel Stain is shown here. Wipe it on and wipe it off. The gel will collect in the valleys you created during the texturing process.
  5. Allow the stain to dry, then apply 2 or 3 coats of spray lacquer to seal and protect.

5. Charred Wood Finish

Here’s a unique look that resembles charred or burnt wood, and it’s easy to pull off.

  1. Using a wire wheel in an angle grinder, texture the alder (details at bottom).
  2. Lightly sand with a fine grit (150 or 220 grit perhaps) sanding sponge. Don’t try to level the ridges and produced during the texture process, just knock down fuzzy grain.
  3. Apply a black gel stain. Old Masters Spanish Oak is used in this sample. Wipe it on, then wipe it off. Allow the stain to dry. There’s a chance that the wipe-off procedure will reveal enough of the wood that you’re pleased with the look. If so, skip to step 5.
  4. Use a sanding block with 220-grit sandpaper and lightly sand the workpiece.
  5. Seal and protect your project with any topcoat finish you want. Most likely polyurethane or lacquer. Due to the texture of the wood, spraying is easiest. Brushing or wiping is more difficult.

6. Reclaimed Red Barn Wood

Similarly, you can use a reddish stain that just might spark memories of summers at the farm and the scent of Grampa’s tractor shed:

  1. Using a wire wheel in an angle grinder, texture the alder (details at bottom).
  2. Lightly sand with a fine grit (150 or 220 grit perhaps) sanding sponge. Don’t try to level the ridges and produced during the texture process, just knock down fuzzy grain.
  3. Apply a reddish brown gel stain. Old Masters Cherry is used in this sample. Wipe it on, then wipe it off. Allow the stain to dry.
  4. Use a sanding block with 220-grit sandpaper and lightly sand the workpiece.
  5. Seal and protect your project with any topcoat finish you want. Most likely polyurethane or lacquer. Due to the texture of the wood, spraying is easiest. Brushing or wiping is more difficult.

 

How To Create a Weathered Texture on Wood

 Click the images to enlarge, use your arrow keys to scroll through each one.

 

7 Techniques for Finishing Beech Woodworking Projects

Tuesday, August 12th, 2014

Since European beech is very close-grained and dense, you can get a wonderfully smooth and flawless finish on the wood with very little trouble. Prepping the wood goes quickly, too, as abrasive sandpaper cuts this wood fast – unlike hard maple, which shares a similar density and light color.

However, European beech is a tricky one to stain or dye to achieve a nice, even color. That is, unless you know some tehniques – a few of them are demonstrated in this video above. Otherwise, here are some visuals and recipes for finishing beech, and each of these are shown in the video. As usual, what you find here are just a few items off the big, broad menu of wood finishing. But this should help you get started.

Clear Finish Choices

european beech with 3 clear finishes compared

Gel Polyurethane. This is one of the easiest protective finishes to apply, and it’s one of the most durable finishes readily available to consumers. It’s a fine choice for protecting a project built with beech; you’ll probably like how painlessly you can get a good, flat topcoat. Because it’s a thick, creamy gel that you wipe on and wipe off, you can use a foam brush or a lint-free rag to apply a coat. Then as you wipe it off with a clean cloth, you’re leveling as you go, which helps you get a great looking coat with little effort. Allow the coat to dry (usually about 6 hours), then apply another in the same fashion. Sanding is not required between coats, unless you feel like your first coat could use it. Such as if you can feel small nibs in your first coat.

Spray lacquer is another choice that has advantages over polyurethane — and some disadvantages. Because it dries faster than polyurethane, you can apply several good coats in one day and move on to rubbing it out and polishing sooner than you can with a polyurethane. Lacquer is, arguably, easier to fix months or years down the road as the finish gets dinged and scratched. Some lacquers are also available as a “water white” formula that doesn’t yellow with age as polyurethane does. If you want to keep that pale, tan color of beech, this might be the finish choice for you. However, spray lacquer is kind of picky about the weather – if humidity is 50% or higher the finish can come out milky, if the temperature is below 50ºF the finish takes longer to dry and won’t flatten as well.

Tung oil and other oils are popular for embellishing all kinds of wood. Tung oil in particular provides some extra contrast to beech. Oil, though, is not a durable topcoat. If you like the look of tung oil but need good surface protection, you can have both. Simply allow the oil to cure, then apply a your topcoat of choice – such as the gel polyurethane or spray lacquer, above.

 

Tips for Staining & Dyeing

The same cherry colored oil stain is applied to each board - yet there are three drastic results. At left, you can see how blotchy the wood is. A basic penetrating oil stain was applied to the bare wood, sanded to 220 grit. To fix it, try a gel stain (middle). Gel stains give you more predictable coverage. If the color of the gel is too strong, try applying a washcoat of dewaxed shellac or a sealer first (right)

The same cherry colored oil stain is applied to each board – yet there are three drastic results. At left, you can see how blotchy the wood is. A basic penetrating oil stain was applied to the bare wood, sanded to 220 grit. To fix it, try a gel stain (middle). Gel stains give you more predictable coverage. If the color of the gel is too strong, try applying a washcoat of dewaxed shellac or a sealer first (right)

Regular oil stains are problematic when applied right to the bare wood, even if sanded properly. Beech simply will not accept stain very evenly, also known as blotching. Fortunately, there are a few ways to color beech without living with a blotchy and unsightly color. Some choices are:

1. Use a gel stain on the bare wood, especially if you want a significant color change. Gel stains are different from other oil or water based stains: they’re thick, creamy and formulated to be used on fiberglass. Yet they happen to do brilliant work on woods that usually blotch with other stains. Application is simple. Use a brush or rag to coat the surface of the wood, then wipe it off. You’ll need to pay attention as you wipe it off, though, being sure not to rub off too much in one or more areas. But don’t worry, it’s not hard – if you happen to wipe off too much stain in one area, simply add a touch of stain to that section and blend it in while the stain is wet.

2. Use a washcoat, then a gel stain to do a more mild color change. A washcoat is just a thin coat of sealer applied to the wood before the stain. When applied to bare wood, gel stain will lay a coat of pigment over the surface of the wood. But on a washcoat you can use the same gel stain and get a mellow color change that doesn’t obscure the wood grain as much.

 

 

What about aniline dye? In most woods, dyes usually are a good alternative when an oil stain causes the wood to blotch. But in beech, even dyes have trouble coloring the wood evenly. However, they are good for creating some graceful and nuanced colors, and for ebonizing or making the wood black.

Beech takes a solid jet black dye, making it an inexpensive way to achieve a perfectly black color.

Beech takes a solid jet black dye, making it an inexpensive way to achieve a perfectly black color.

To ebonize beech, or make it black, here’s one way to do it:

  1. Prep the wood as normal by sanding to about 220 grit
  2. Use a premixed jet black aniline dye. Solar-Lux makes one that is alcohol based, also called non grain raising
  3. On large areas, it’s best to spray. If you don’t have spray equipment, use a cloth pad or lint-free rag folded into a pad.
  4. Apply the dye. After one coat, you will probably still see streaks and lap marks. If so, apply another coat. In short order, your workpiece will be black
  5. Apply a sealer, let it dry. Avoid dewaxed shellac because the denatured alcohol in the shellac can lift the black dye. Your sealer needs to be compatible with your top coat of choice in the next step
  6. Apply your protective top coat finish, then rub out and wax your finish to give it the sheen and flatness you want

 

 

 

beech with brown glaze

Doing a three-step coloring process, you can achieve some nice colors. This sample has a reddish orange aniline dye, then a sealer, then it’s been glazed with a dark brown gel stain. The result is largely a dark brown, but hints of red and orange come through as well.

Dyes can also be used with a glazing technique to make more interesting colors. The board at right isn’t just a dark brown – there are hints of reddish orange in the lighter area.

  1. Prep the wood as normal by sanding to about 220 grit
  2. Apply a light reddish orange aniline dye. Golden Fruitwood is used on the sample at right
  3. Seal the dye with a sealer. Be sure the sealer is compatible with your preferred topcoat in the last step. For example, lacquer sanding sealer goes with lacquer. Let it dry.
  4. Apply a glazing stain or a gel stain. The sample at right used Old Masters Dark Walnut gel stain. Wipe it on, then wipe it off. Pay attention to your workpiece as you wipe off the stain. If you wipe off too much stain in one area, apply a little more stain and blend it in. Let the stain dry
  5. You should be satisfied with your color at this stage.
  6. Apply your protective top coat finish, then rub out and wax your finish to give it the sheen and flatness you want